Mesoscale features in Cold Air


Synoptic and Mesoscale Analysis of Satellite Images 2018 Course

Length: 70 min

Author: Veronika Zwatz-Meise (former ZAMG)


There are a number of structures and processes happening after a cold front has passed an area, e.g. enhanced cumuli, commas, instant occlusions, etc. Commas, for example are meso-scale structures developing within cold air, often behind frontal cloud bands. They occur mainly during the cold season and are a common feature for Northern and Western Europe - nevertheless commas can also be found in the south. As commas can cause severe weather this conceptual model is of high interest for forecasters. In this lecture life cycles of commas will be shown, what do commas form from, what can they form into, how they are connected to other mentioned phenomena and how they appear in satellite imagery - seen by MSG and polar orbiting satellites.


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Lecture slides