Upper-Level-Lows (ULLs) are a very common phenomenon in mid-lattitudes. They are usually associated with cold and rainy weather that can last for several days. When they remain stationary over a period of time, the can bring
considerable amounts of rainfall locally. This synoptic situation has led in the past to floods and damages in infrastructure as will be show by the example of the Central European Flood in summer 2021.
This training module focusses on the meteorological aspects of ULLs, describes the life-cycle and throws a spottlight on the involved physical processes that accompany this meteorological phenomenon. Each stage of development is exemplified by satellite loops and corresponding NWP parameters. Exercises will help you to check the acquired knowledge.